Providing Internal DNS with OS X Server
Picture the scene: You’ve got a hosted Mac somewhere on the internet, you connect to it via a VPN to access the services you host on it, but you’d like to use domains to refer to these and have them look up correctly.
The solution to this (and to a bunch of similar problems) is to configure a DNS server internally to handle look ups for you. It’ll return internal-relevant IPs for domains (which could in this case be anything).
This is basically a much more specific version of Apple’s “Provide DNS service” article.
During these steps, you’ll need to:
- Configure a forwarding server to route requests outside of the local network.
- Set the lookup behavior to serve the local network.
- Configure the VPN to provide the DNS server in it’s configuration.
- Add a relevant zone.
- Add the names and aliases needed to that zone.
Configure Forwarding Servers
It’s assumed you’ll configure this with whichever the upstream ISP provides. You can do this in Server.app’s DNS section under forwarding servers. They might well already be pre-populated.
Configure Lookup Behavior
The lookup behavior defines which networks the DNS server will be available to. You’ll want to configure both “The server itself” and “Clients on the local network” as the screenshot below shows:
Configure the VPN DNS Settings
Next, switch to the VPN service and configure the local DNS server:
10.0.0.1 is the local server IP.)
Create a Zone & Configure it
Switch back to the DNS Service. First, check “Show All Records” in the cog dropdown. Then, “Add Primary Zone”:
Next, add an A record by selecting “Add Machine Record”:
Finally, you can test that this all worked by using
dig. On a device
connected to the VPN you should get a result like the following:
$ dig test.example.com ; <<>> DiG 9.8.3-P1 <<>> test.example.com ;; global options: +cmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 42105 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;test.example.com. IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: test.example.com. 10800 IN A 10.0.0.1 ;; AUTHORITY SECTION: example.com. 10800 IN NS test.example.com. ;; Query time: 153 msec ;; SERVER: 10.0.0.1#53(10.0.0.1) ;; WHEN: Mon Jul 6 10:34:46 2015 ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 64
If you get no result (or it forwards up to the external
example.com zone, you
won’t see your internal IP listed. This would suggest that the DNS server isn’t
specified correctly, or one of the other steps didn’t quite work right.